6. Factors causing the development of water erosion of soil in vineyards

Author: Lukyanov Alexei Alexandrovich


The water erosion annually causes a great damage to the agricultural lands throughout the world. The struggle against soil erosion is one of the most important government tasks in the system of measures directed to the preservation and transformation of the landscape. The main factors of erosion are: climatic, topographic, geological, soil, biological and the level of human economic activity. The soil erosion in vineyards is one of the priority problems in modern viticulture. The aim of our ongoing research is to study the process of development of the water erosion of the soil in the vineyards. The object of our research is the vineyard soil which is exposed to water erosion. Research methods used in the work: route-field investigation, laboratory study of the waterphysical characteristics of the soil. The article describes the main factors leading to the development of water erosion of the soil in vineyards. It is noted that the light structured soil with a small amount of organic substance in it is more exposed to water erosion. It is also ascertained that water erosion can become apparent on slopes even of 1°. The negative influence of the system of vineyard soil maintenance as black steam is shown and scientifically substantiated in the article. Ways to reduce the mechanical loading on the soil and preventing the development of degradation processes of soils in the vineyards are suggested. It is indicated that it is necessary to conduct soil studies to assess the site potential while establishing vineyards; it is necessary to conduct the planning of the site in order to level microeminences and microlowerings to prevent further development of water erosion. The most effective method of combating soil erosion is the use of grass cover, which prevents almost completely the development of erosive processes.

Key words: soil, degradation, watererosion, vineyard