Growing liberalisation of economic relations has been increasingly present, also in agriculture. Therefore, managing to be up against the fierce and growing competition involves the need to improve the competitive quality of the agricultural sector in Poland. This study focusses on determining the scale of changes in selected structural aspects, with particular attention given to the determinants of the production capacity of agricultural holdings. The analysis examines a number of selected factors which, due to the nature of Polish agriculture, are crucial in determining its economic potential and competitive edge. Hence, the paper focusses on resources and the utilisation of agricultural land, the size and structure of holdings, and progress in the processes of agricultural land concentration, which is determined largely by the situation on the agricultural land market.
Essential empirical data comprised common statistical data from GUS, particularly the findings of the National Agricultural Census of 2002 and 2010. The research indicated that, despite increasingly evident land conversion, Polish agriculture, due to the acreage of agricultural land, is capable of becoming an important player on the agricultural market. Positive structural changes and the continuous process of land concentration suggest an improvement in the competitive edge of agriculture in Poland.