5. The morphological and biological characteristics of the specimens from Monarda didyma

Author: Nadejda Zapryanova, Stela Dimkova, Ralitsa Gavrilova


The plants of the genus Monarda of the family Lamiaceae are little known in our country. The species Monarda didyma is mainly distributed. It is used in landscaping as a perennial ornamental crop. In addition to its original blossoms, it has a pleasant aroma combining the aromas of bergamot, lemon and mint, due to the essential oils contained in the leaves, blossoms and stems of the plant.
The Institute of Ornamental and Medicinal Plants – Sofia has a perennial species collection in which the genus Monarda is represendted by 32 genotypes of the Monarda didyma species. The plants are characterized by different habit, color and shape of the blossoms. During the phenological observations it was established that in the Sofia field region the Мonarda vegetation begins in the beginning of March and ends in the beginning of October. The flowering period in almost all samples covers the months of June to August, with mass flowering in the beginning of July. Biometric measurements show differences in the size of the tufts formed, the size of the leaves and the flowers.
After analyzes, genotypes with emphasized decorative qualities were separated, which will be used to diversify the range of seedlings in the Monarda didyma type offered on the market.

Keywords: Monarda didyma, habit, blossoms, phenological observations, flowering period