Analyses of the effect of the genotype and nitrogen nutrition on the seed quality and yield of Bulgarian and European 2-row and 6-row barley varieties are presented. Major seed characteristics of 10 genotypes were evaluated (1,000 seed weight, uniformity, size, germination and seed yield), fertilized under 4 different nitrogen nutritional regimes. The moderate levels of fertilizers contributed to a better nutrition of the seed. Increase of the nitrogen supply was favorable for the production of bigger seed. Economical varieties with sufficient quality and yield, as well as more stable characteristics under various fertilization regimes were determined.