Grain legumes have positive impact on global food and nutrition security. Grain legume collections, maintained at the Institute of Plant Genetic Resources – Sadovo are represented by 10 botanical genera. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the phenotypic diversity of local accessions from five grain legume collections (Vicia faba, Pisum sp., Lathyrus sp., Cicer arietinum and Lupinus sp.) and to select the best ones with potential to be used under different agro-climatic conditions. The assessment of morphological and agro-biological traits was performed according to the International Descriptor for each crop. The structural elements of the yield, such as the number of pods and the mass of pods and grains per plant, grains size, etc. have a significant impact on the productivity of the grain legumes. The variability of agronomic and biological traits has shown high genetic diversity in evaluated grain legume collections and increased the possibilities for their use in the breeding-improvement activity. Based on phenotyping assessment several grain legume accessions were distinguished as starting breeding materials: from pea collection – two cultivars and two local populations; from chickpea collection – four populations; from faba bean collection – eight populations; from bitter vetch collection – two accessions; from grass pea collection – six genotypes; from white lupin collection – two accessions. The study of the materials from the collections was focused on the interests of researchers, breeders and producers.