Data about the structure and size of the pig herds and about the households in Bulgaria raising animals of the East Balkan swine breed were analyzed. The study included 9684 animals in total, raised in 96 herds. Data collection and processing was carried out through questionnaires developed in accordance with the Production Environment Descriptors for Animal Genetic Resources, adopted by FAO. The conclusion was drawn that the number of the animals of the East Balkan swine breed decreased 5,7 times during the period 2005-2011. The reasons for that were the low selling prices, the bureaucratic attitude of the governing structures and the lack of a strategy for preserving the breed. Well-educated and comparatively young people have been engaged in raising the East Balkan swine and over 47% of the farms are hereditary. It is recommended that the East Balkan swine is preserved as a genetic resource and the regions, in which it is raised, could become an attractive tourist destination. Actually, the East Balkan swine provides the means of subsistence for 96 families.