The Bulgarian Murrah buffalo breed is marked for a genetic potential for high milk yield, specific quality characteristics of the dairy and beef produce with regard to human vitality and health, as well as for its excellent adaptation to the national rural and climatic conditions, rendering it the specifics of a precious genetic resource. Recent national statistical surveys indicate that the population of buffaloes in Bulgaria comes to 9,530 heads, 5,270 of them being milk-yielding buffalo cows, concentrated mainly in the central regions of the country. A favourable trend of decreasing the number of buffalo farms is observed while, on the other hand, their size is becoming larger. An analysis of the present status and the perspectives for the development of the breed under the conditions of the EC market was carried out, the essential priority measures for its improvement and optimization pointed out. The biological and infrastructural constraints for the genetic progress of the breed were also taken into consideration.