The main goal of the study is to evaluate the possibilities for competitiveness growth of Bulgarian apiculture on the basis of the results from an analysis of the general condition, the results from transformation and the factors forming the market capacity after the accession to the European Union. The comparative advantages, the level of competitiveness, and the changes in market capacity are investigated via the following indicators: comparative index of export advantages, cost-benefit ratio for the export (BCR) and the share of internal factors costs (DRC). The country has preserved its comparative advantages in apiculture. The higher share of domestic inputs is an important factor for the successful development of competitiveness, market capacity and level of cost return. The possibilities for realization of the sector comparative advantages and increasing of its market capacity are connected with modernization, young people involved and the development of the institutional framework. Resources provision and the implementation of the Program for the Development of Bulgarian Apiculture prove to be crucial in that respect.