At present, the main documents regulating the requirements for planting materials of grapes are: Federal Law "On Seed" and GOST R 53050-2008 and GOST 31783-2012. These regulations define the category of planting material, as well as the compliance with the varietal purity and appearance. The essence of the definition of quality indicators is reduced to a visual inspection for external signs. The main advantage of this method is the relative simplicity and efficiency. However, if there are any internal anomalies visually they are no longer fixed and require additional verification, which provides for the total or partial destruction of the object of control. Currently, there are methods and means of non-destructive study of the internal structure of the object and place in it processes using various physical methods, such as X-rays. The X-ray method allows without destroying the object of research to determine all its volume and linear anomalies. This article describes methods for determining the quality parameters of grapes planting material using a microfocus X-ray, in particular, the technique of determining the germination of grape seeds, the method of determining the quality of accretion rootstock-inoculation components grafted grape seedlings, the method of determining the degree of infestation of wood grapes vascular necrosis. The article provides detailed characteristics of radiographic signs of Shadow X-ray image corresponding to the internal state of the object. Knowledge of radiographic evidence of a particular type of defect allows the accurate and quick determination of the degree of damage, and facilitates the training and work of the operator. Recommendation of using this method in the research work and in practical viticulture is suggested.