Agents for biological control of weeds have been used for more than 100 years. The classical biological control, which is the introduction of adequate natural enemies from the homeland of a weed of foreign origin, often results in successful control of the weed populations. This method is used all over the world and is considered economically effective, efficient and environmentally safe. Long-term programs for biological control require a very careful approach and management. The present paper overviews the exiting programs for biological control of one of the most invasive and most aggressive weeds - Chondrilla juncea L. (Asteraceae). After many years of research the weed is successfully controlled in Australia and some States of America with a year-round warmer climate. Further research on potential bioagents that could be effective in the States with a cooler climate is being carried out while focusing on the center of origin of the weed treated - the Balkan countries. As a result of a research conducted during 2000-2007, 51 insect species were identified, feeding on the host plant and causing damages on its root system, vegetative and reproductive parts. The moth Schinia cognata Fr. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) proved to be of significant scientific interest with regard to the purposes of the biological weed control.